The MUST KNOW ORGANS, where they are in the body and how they work
1. Brain: Situated in the skull.
2. Thyroid glands: On the neck, in front of the breast-bone.
3. Heart: In the chest, below and to the left of the breast-bone.
4. Lungs: In the chest, on either side of the heart.
5. Trachea and bronchi: Tubes connecting the throat to the lungs.
6. Oesophagus (food pipe): The tube connecting the throat to the stomach.
7. Stomach: Situated in the upper central part of the abdomen. Collects the food consumed and secretes gastric acid and enzymes to help digest proteins.
8. Intestine: Tube-like structures seen coiled inside the abdominal cavity, where the food is digested and absorbed, and waste materials are prepared for disposal.
9. Appendix: a tube-like structure arising from the large intestine in the right lower part of the abdomen.
10. Liver: A large organ situated on the right-upper part of the abdomen, which is a major gland in the digestive system with multiple functions.
11. Gall-Bladder: Situated just below the liver, it stores and concentrates the bile produced by the liver.
12. Spleen: An organ on the left-upper part of the abdomen which helps in cleansing the blood.
13. Pancreas: Situated below and behind the stomach. Plays a big role in the regulation of blood sugar by secreting hormones like Insulin and Glucagon. Also secretes enzymes that aid in digestion.
14. Kidneys: Located near the back of the upper abdomen. They are a pair of bean-shaped organs that help in the removal of waste products from the body by producing urine. They also help in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance of the body.
15. Adrenal gland: These are a pair of glands located just above the kidneys. They produce important hormones like steroids and adrenaline.
16. Ureters: Narrow, long, muscular tubes that carry the urine produced in the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
17. Urinary Bladder: The receptacle where urine is stored. Located in the central lower abdomen.
18. Urethra: A tube from the urinary bladder through which the urine passes out of the body.
19. Prostate: A gland situated below the neck of the urinary bladder in males. Secretes a fluid which forms an important component of semen.
20. Reproductive organs;
a. Male - Testes – A pair of organs situated in the scrotal sac. Produce the male hormones and sperms.
i. Uterus – A muscular organ situated inside the pelvic cavity, where the embryo gets implanted and develops into a baby.
ii. Ovaries – A pair of organs on either side of the uterus. Produces the female hormones and eggs.
-Dr. Vani Krishna Warrier, Specialist Internal Medicine at Aster Jubilee Medical Complex