EGYPT Egypt president to visit Iran
First visit by an Egyptian leader in decades could mark a thaw between the two countries after years of enmity
Cairo: Egypt’s President Mohammed Mursi will attend a summit in Iran later this month, a presidential official said on Saturday, the first such trip for an Egyptian leader since relations with Tehran deteriorated decades ago.
The visit could mark a thaw between the two countries after years of enmity, especially since Egypt signed its 1979 peace treaty with Israel and Iran underwent its Islamic revolution. Under Mursi’s predecessor Hosni Mubarak, Egypt, predominantly Sunni, sided with Saudi Arabia and other Sunni-dominated Arab states in trying to isolate Shiite-led Iran.
Until now, contacts have been channelled through interest sections, a low-level form of diplomatic representation. In May last year, Egypt, which was ruled by an interim military council, expelled a junior Iranian diplomat on suspicion he tried to set up spy rings in Egypt and the Gulf countries.
It’s too early to assess the implications of the visit or to what extent the Arab world’s most populous country may normalise relations with Tehran, but analysts believe it will bring Egypt back to the regional political stage. The visit is in line with popular sentiment since Mubarak’s ouster in an uprising last year for Cairo to craft a foreign policy independent of Western or oil Gulf countries’ agendas.
“This really signals the first response to a popular demand and a way to increase the margin of manoeuvre for Egyptian foreign policy in the region,” said political scientist Mustafa Kamal Al Syed. “Mursi’s visits ... show that Egypt’s foreign policy is active again in the region.”
“This is a way also to tell Gulf countries that Egypt is not going to simply abide by their wishes and accept an inferior position,” he added.
The official said that Mursi will visit Tehran on August 30 on his way back from China to attend the Non-Aligned Movement Summit, where Egypt will transfer the movement’s rotating leadership to Iran. He spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not yet authorised to make the announcement.
The trip is no surprise — it came days after Mursi included Iran, a strong ally of Syrian Bashar Al Assad, in a proposal for a contact group to mediate an end to Syria’s escalating civil war. The proposal for the group, which includes Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Turkey, was made at the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) summit in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
During the summit, Mursi exchanged handshakes and kisses with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, in their first meeting since Mursi assumed his post as Egypt’s first elected president.
The idea was welcomed by Iran’s state-run Press TV, and a leading member of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood said that Tehran’s acceptance of the proposal was a sign Egypt was beginning to regain some of the diplomatic and strategic clout it once held in the region.
After the fall of Mubarak in last year’s popular revolt, officials have expressed no desire to maintain Mubarak’s staunch anti-Iranian stance.
Last July, former Egyptian foreign minister Nabeel Al Arabi, who also heads the Arab League, delivered a conciliatory message to the Islamic Republic, saying “Iran is not an enemy.” He also noted that post-Mubarak Egypt would seek to open a new page with every country in the world, including Iran.
Tensions have not been absent however in contacts with Iran’s clerical state since Egypt’s uprising. When a delegation of politicians and youth activists made a visit to Iran last year, one Egyptian pro-democracy activist, Mustafa Al Najjar, said his Iranian hosts claimed the revolt sweeping the Arab world was part of an “Islamic awakening”. He responded with a different interpretation: the anti-Mubarak uprising was “not a religious revolution, but a human evolution”.
Any normalisation between the two countries would have to be based on careful calculations.
Majority Sunni Egypt has its own suspicions of Iran on both religious and political grounds. The country’s ultraconservative Salafists and even the moderate consider Shiites heretics and enemies.
Shiites account for some 160 million of the Islamic world’s population of 1.3 billion people, and make up about 90 per cent of Iran’s population, more than 60 per cent of Iraq’s, and around 50 per cent of the people living in the arc of territory from Lebanon to India.
In 2006, Mubarak angered Shiite leaders by saying Shiites across the Middle East were more loyal to Iran than to their own countries. His view was shared by other Arab leaders and officials, including Jordan’s King Abdullah II who warned of a Shiite crescent forming in the region.
“The old regime used to turn any of his rivals to a ghost. We don’t want to do like Mubarak and exaggerate of the fear of Iran,” said Mahmoud Ezzat, deputy leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, of which Mursi was the leader of its political arm.
“But at the same time, we should not take the Iranians’ ambitions lightly. As much as they don’t want us to interfere in their business, we don’t want them to interfere in our business,” he said, mentioning his group’s opposition to Iran’s “grand project to spread Shiite faith.”
While nearly three decades of Mubarak rule left Egyptians inundated with state-spun scenarios of Iranian plots aiming to destabilise the country, many sympathise with Iran’s Islamic revolution and consider Tehran’s defiance of the United States a model to follow. Others seek a foreign policy at the very least more independent of Washington.
A new understanding with Iran would be a big shake-up for a region that has been split between Tehran’s camp — which includes Syria and Islamist militias Hezbollah in Lebanon and Hamas in Gaza — and a US-backed group led by Saudi Arabia and rich Gulf nations.
To add another level of complexity, there is also the fact that militant group Hamas, which rules the Palestinian enclave in the Gaza strip to the frustration of neighbouring Israel, is a historical offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood, the dominant force in Egyptian politics since Mursi’s election.
Aware of the Gulf states’ anxieties over the rise of political Islam in post-Mubarak Egypt, Mursi has focused on courting Saudi Arabia. He visited it twice, once just after he won the presidency, and a second time during the Islamic summit. In an attempt to assuage fears of the Arab uprisings by oil monarchs, he vowed that Egypt does not want to “export its revolution”. He has also asserted commitment to the security of Saudi Arabia and its Gulf Arab allies, a thinly veiled reference to the tension between them and Iran.